Angola: From rough diamond to mining giant? – Mining Review


Worldwide funding in Angola’s mining sector has traditionally been restricted relative To grease and gasoline, with capital deterred by accusations of grand corruption beneath typeer president José Eduardo dos Santos.

However, the election of retypeist president João Lourenço in 2017 ushered in primary enhancements to the enterprise environment, collectively with A discount Inside the position of the state Inside the financial system, a sustained anti-corruption drive and the introduction of greater transparency. Lourenço’s re-election for a second time period in August 2022 currents further grounds for mining buyers to rethink Angola’s potential in 2023.

Industry shake-up

Under President Lourenço’s management, the ruling Movimento Properly-appreciated de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) halfy has deby way ofted from its leftist previous and Discover your self to be extra open To Private enterprise and internationwide funding. Retypes handed in Lourenço’s first yr in power disadvantaged state-owned diamond miner Empresa Nacional de Diamantes de Angola (Endiama) of administration over the industry.

Under its pared again position, Endiama is now a concessionaire, whereas the minperiodl assets agency, Agência Nacional de Recursos Minperiodis (ANRM), oversees licensing and regulation.

The fedperiodl authorities has sought funding in state-owned enterprises, elevating US$1.25 billion by way of the disposal of 92 belongings. It now plans to half-privatise Endiama and nationwide oil agency Sociedade Nacional de Combustíveis de Angola (Sonangol), each of which have been restructured in anticipation of mooted inventory market listings.

While This might be potential for Sonangol on account of its rising monitor doc of audited accounts, we anticipate Endiama to promote shares to A private investor. The doormethod of A mannequin new stpricegic halfner would increase The agency’s working capital and strengthen its enterprise acumen at a time of rising diamond output and buoyant internationwide demand.

Russian halfnership

Historically, Endiama has halfnered with Russian mining huge Alrosa, which is The Most very important overseas investor in Angola’s diamond sector. Although Alrosa was subjected to US sanctions Inside the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, The agency holds minority stakes in Angolan diamond mines, enabling it To flee the measures.

Western efforts to boycott The agency’s stones have Even been difficult by the transtypeation of diamonds Through the slicing and sprucing course of – typically in India – which permits diamantaires To change the nation of origin. This has allowd Alrosa To take care of its manufacturing steperiodge, with the agency enterpriseing 34-35 million carats in 2022 — up from 32.4 million carats in 2021.

Alrosa opeprices Catoca – the fifth largest open pit diamond mine On the earth – beneath A 3 method halfnership with Endiama. This worthwhile halfnership is now focused on ramping up manufacturing On the Luaxe kimberlite enterprise, which ensures to be even hugeger than Catoca.

Output from Luaxe is enterpriseed To Obtain an estimated 5.7 million carats in 2023. This Is in a place to allow Angola To overhaul South Africa and Discover your self to be the fifth largest diamond producer by quantity. Angola exported 8.7 million carats in 2021, producing $1.6 billion, Based mostly on Kimberley Process knowledge. Endiama enterpriseed 10.5 million carats this yr, and the sector has already genepriced $1 billion in H1, 2022.

Return of The primarys

Endiama is reducing its reliance on Alrosa By Stpricegy of latest halfnerships with internationwide gamers, That are taking primaryity stakes in enterprises following retypes to mining equity legal guidelines. Rio Tinto returned to Angola in October 2021, buying a 75% stake Inside the Chiri exploration licence typeerly held by Isabel dos Santos – the daughter of The earlier Angolan president – which had been acquired by the state following an anti-corruption crackdown in 2018.

De Beers re-entered Angola after a ten-yr absence in April 2022, with CEO Bruce Cleaver pelevating the authorities’s capability to create a “safe and engaging funding environment.” De Beers signed two Minperiodl Investment Contracts; one for a licence straddling Chitato, Lucapa and Cambulo municipalities in Lunda Norte province, and a second which extends throughout the Saurimo, Dala and Muconda municipalities in Lunda Sul province.

Blue-chip miners have been probably gpriceful of Angola’s software to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), which was accredited in June 2022. This ensures to strengthen efforts to root out graft in power and mining by forcing disclosure of useful house owners and contracts and elevating greater consciousness of sector practices.

The sector has Even profited from A mannequin new Private Investment Regulation in 2018, which clarifies the tax advantages and incentives Which might be negotiated and included in a Minperiodl Investment Contract. Revenue repatriation has furtherly enhanced, with The primary retypes to the central financial institution and its capability To Search out out monetary covperiodge. The Banco Nacional de Angola (BNA) has moved to a floating commerce price for the Kwanza and its mandate has been retypeed, Ensuing in a Think about containing inflation, pretty than merely defending The worth of the foreign money.

The fedperiodl authorities has furtherly promoted greater rivals and transparency in diamond advertising, ending the authorized monopolies afforded to Endiama buying and promoting subsidiary Sociedade de Comercialização de Diamantes de Angola (Sodiam) in 2018. Diamond miners At the second are entitled to promote 60% of their output to corporations of their selection, As well as to to their buying and promoting divisions.

Sodiam Is restricted to advertising 20% of manufacturing, and The agency now holds “sights” for pre-accredited consumers, As well as to auctions, strengthening transparency in a beforehand opaque industry. The reprimarying 20% is reserved for native course ofors, which Make the most of tax incentives at a devoted slicing and sprucing zone – the Pólo de Desenvolvimento Diamantífero de Saurimo (PDDS) in Lunda Sul province.

Potential past diamonds

Angola has extra To current than diamonds, however. The nation is endowed with an abundance of pure assets, collectively with deposits of base metals and iron ore. The Copperbelt which straddles the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zambia Is beneathstood To enhance into Angola, although deposits have largely gone untapped As a Outcome of the colonial period. Meanwhereas, the Kunene Complicated has been recognized as containing vital nickel deposits.

In November 2019, Anglo American signed 5 Minperiodl Investment Contracts overlaying three copper, cobalt and nickel tasks in Cunene province, and two copper, cobalt and silver tasks in Moxico province. The subsequent yr, China’s Shining Star Group acquired the Mavoio-Tetelo copper enterprise in Uíge province.

The fedperiodl authorities May even be looking for funding in iron ore deposits located Inside the south-japanese provinces of Cuando Cubango and Moxico, which have been beforehand beneath the administration of the state-owned Emprêsa Nacional de Ferro de Angola (Ferrangol). Of curiosity too are ornamental rocks, enterprisely Usually acknowledged as Granito Negro Angola, with deposits concentpriced in Bengo province, shut to Luanda, simplifying export.

Equally promising is Pensana’s Prolongedonjo unusual earths enterprise in Huambo province. Prolongedonjo is believed to be Definitely one of many world’s largest undeveloped unusual earth deposits with an preliminary 20-yr Lifetime of mine. Pensana plans to export extreme purity mixed unusual earth sulphate (MRES) from the Port of Lobito using the recently upgraded Benguela railmethod line. The state has furtherly bolstered the case for funding with The current of hydropower to The state of affairs, and with the Angolan Sovereign Wealth Fund taking a 24% stake in Pensana. The enterprise has acquired againing from export credit rating suppliers ECIC, UKEF, IFC and DFC.

Planning for The Prolonged time period

With President Lourenço’s time period now beneath method, the authorities is drafting A mannequin new National Enchancment Plan (PND) for the interval 2023-2027. That is set to have A critical Think about infrastructure enlargement, spurring funding in roads and railmethods, As well as to financial diversification, with greater dedication to industrialisation.

The mannequin new PND will type the againbone of A mannequin new Mining Sector Enchancment Plan for 2023 2027, which Shall be overseen by the Minister of Minperiodl Resources, Oil and Gas, Diamantino Azevedo. A German-educated mining engineer, Azevedo has A strong appreciation of Angola’s potential, having lectured in minperiodl financials On the Universidade Agostinho Neto (UAN) in Luanda and served as CEO of Ferrangol Previous to Getting into authorities in 2017. Azevedo’s technical expertise and Lourenço’s political will ensures to take Angola’s mining industry to new heights.


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